As consumer energy demands rose through the twentieth century, so too did the need for alternative sources. Following the 1970s energy crisis, concerns about future fuel shortages combined with conservation policy to create a national movement toward energy reform. Beyond increasing domestic fossil fuel production, the United States also began to develop nuclear power and renewable energy.

Texas proved a leader among all markets, becoming not only the nation’s largest producer of crude oil but also its largest producer of natural gas, sixth-largest producer of coal, fifth-largest supplier of nuclear power, and largest generator of wind power, according to 2016 reports from the US Energy Information Administration. The state also ranked first in energy consumption and carbon emissions, however, contributing to a serious debate about climate change and the harmful effects of oil and gas production.